Christmas is approaching and it is advisable to go on a diet to try to counteract the kilos that will surely be gained at this time of year. There are many types of weight loss diet that exist, but there is one thing they have in common: they all offer a lower caloric intake than the human body needs, that is, they are low-calorie diets.

Why low-calorie diets lose weight
Glucose that flows through the blood (and is also stored in the liver or muscle in the form of glycogen) is the main source of energy for the entire body, especially for fundamental organs such as the brain or the heart. Thus, as long as there is glucose (or in its defect glycogen) the human body will not use its fat reserves, which is what is needed to lose weight.

So, the objective of a hypocaloric diet is to reduce the amount of calories in the intake to reduce the production of glucose that goes into the blood and ‘force’ the body to burn fat stores. A process that the human body achieves by transforming fat into ketone bodies, a substitute energy source for glucose, and reaching ketosis. A state that can be found out because it gives signs such as bad breath, an increased feeling of thirst, dizziness, nausea or irritability.

What is and how is the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) calculated?
To know how many fewer calories to eat, the first step is to know how many calories the body burns without doing anything: this is called basal metabolism (BMR). A concept that he already shared with Status Charles Orrico, a nutritionist at the Fit Club Madrid gym, and that is solved with a mathematical formula. One of the most used is that of Harris Benedict, which would be:

– Men: BMR = (10 x weight in Kg) + (6.25 x height in cm) – (5 x age in years) + 5

-Women: BMR = (10 x weight in kg) + (6.25 x height in cm) – (5 x age in years) – 161

Once you know how many calories your body burns without doing anything, you have to establish a restrictive diet that adds a set of calories a little above the BMR. Or greater if physical exercise is introduced that increases the energy needs of the body. Generally speaking, a strict weight loss diet adds up to 1,200-1,500 calories for a woman and 1,700-2000 for a man.

The keto or ketogenic diet, a type of hypocaloric diet
Keto or ketogenic diets are a type of hypocaloric food restriction that is characterized by minimizing the consumption of foods that nourish the human body with glucose, that is, simple carbohydrates (which can be found in milk, sugar or fruit) or complex carbohydrates (which can be found in cereals, flours, pasta or legumes).

Thus, this diet consists of reducing the intake of these foods and increasing the content of proteins and healthy fats. Specifically, it is committed to consuming 50-60% fat, 20-30% protein and leaving 10%, or less, to carbohydrates. The menus of the keto or ketogenic diets stand out for five foods featuring eggs, meat, dairy, vegetables, fish, nuts and seeds. And foods rich in healthy fats such as avocado or fish such as tuna, cod or salmon tend to have a lot of presence.

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